Supramolecular self‐assembly is an important process that enables the conception of complex structures mimicking biological motifs. Herein, we constructed helical fibrils through chiral self‐assembly of nucleobase–peptide conjugates (NPCs), where achiral nucleobases are helically displayed on the surface of fibrils, comparable to polymerized nucleic acids. Selective binding between DNA and the NPC fibrils was observed with fluorescence polarization. Taking advantage of metal–nucleobase recognition, we highlight the possibility of deposition/assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles onto the fibrillar constructs. In this approach, the supramolecular chirality of NPCs can be adaptively imparted to metallic nanoparticles, covering them to generate structures with plasmonic chirality that exhibit significantly improved colloidal stability. The self‐assembly of rationally designed NPCs into nanohelices is a promising way to engineer complex, optically diverse nucleobase‐derived nanomaterials.